How Saudi Arabia Became a Country | Simple History of Saudi Arabia

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How Saudi Arabia became a country? In this article, we will present to you the simple history of Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom Saudi Arabia History timeline is related to Islam. Its kings have their own role in the development of the country. The history of Saudi Arabia is quite complicated. The keywords that represent Saudi Arabia History the most are Islam and Oil.

What was Saudi Arabia called before

What was Saudi Arabia called before? Saudi Arabia was part of Islamic caliphate which centralized in Turkey. Basically, Saudi Arabia was formed from several 13 Regions. Each region has its own ruler. So, formerly, Saudi Arabia was called based on the regions such as Hijaz (Mecca and Medina), Nejd, etc as in the article of 13 Regions of Saudi Arabia.

How Saudi Arabia became a country

How Saudi Arabia became a country? In 1902, Abdul-Aziz bin Saud, leader of the Al Saud, returned from exile in Kuwait to resume the conflict with the Al Rashid, and seized Riyadh – the first of a series of conquests ultimately leading to the creation of the modern state of Saudi Arabia in 1932. The main weapon for achieving these conquests was the Ikhwan, the Wahhabist-Bedouin tribal army led by Sultan bin Bajad Al-Otaibi and Faisal al-Duwaish.

By 1906, Abdulaziz had driven the Al Rashid out of Najd and the Ottomans recognized him as their client in Najd. His next major acquisition was Al-Hasa, which he took from the Ottomans in 1913, bringing him control of the Persian Gulf coast and what would become Saudi Arabia’s vast oil reserves. He avoided involvement in the Arab Revolt, having acknowledged Ottoman suzerainty in 1914, and instead continued his struggle with the Al Rashid in northern Arabia. In 1920, the Ikhwan’s attention turned to the south-west, when they seized Asir, the region between the Hejaz and Yemen. In the following year, Abdul-Aziz finally defeated the Al Rashid and annexed all northern Arabia.

Prior to 1923, Abdulaziz had not risked invading the Hejaz because Hussein bin Ali, King of the Hejaz, was supported by Britain. However, in that year, the British withdrew their support. At a conference in Riyadh in July 1924 complaints were stated against the Hejaz; principally that pilgrimage from Najd was prevented and it boycotted the implementation of certain public policy in contravention of shari’a. Ikhwan units were massed on a large scale for the first time, and under Khalid bin Lu’ayy and Sultan bin Bajad rapidly advanced on Mecca and plundered it, laying waste to symbols of “heathen” practices. The Ikhwan completed their conquest of the Hejaz by the end of 1925. On 10 January 1926 Abdulaziz declared himself King of the Hejaz and, then, on 27 January 1927 he took the title King of Najd (his previous title was Sultan). The use of the Ikhwan to effect the conquest had important consequences for the Hejaz: The old cosmopolitan society was uprooted, and a radical version of Wahhabi culture was imposed as a new compulsory social order.

By the Treaty of Jeddah, signed on 20 May 1927, the United Kingdom recognized the independence of Abdul-Aziz’s realm (then known as the Kingdom of Hejaz and Najd). After the conquest of the Hejaz, the Ikhwan leaders wanted to continue the expansion of the Wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait. Abdul-Aziz, however, refused to agree to this, recognizing the danger of a direct conflict with the British. The Ikhwan therefore revolted but were defeated in the Battle of Sabilla in 1929, and the Ikhwan leadership were massacred.

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In 1932, the two kingdoms of the Hejaz and Najd were united as the ‘Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’. So, that is all the simple history of Saudi Arabia.

History of Saudi Arabia Kings

History of Saudi Arabia Kings can be simplified as from 1932 until his death in 1953, Abdulaziz ruled Saudi Arabia as an absolute monarchy. Thereafter six of his sons in succession have reigned over the kingdom:

  1. Saud, the immediate successor of Abdulaziz, faced opposition from most in the royal family and was eventually deposed.
  2. Faisal replaced Saud in 1964. Until his murder by a nephew in 1975, Faisal presided over a period of growth and modernization fueled by oil wealth. Saudi Arabia’s role in the 1973 oil crisis and, the subsequent rise in the price of oil, dramatically increased the country’s political significance and wealth.
  3. Khalid, Faisal’s successor, reigned during the first major signs of dissent: Islamist extremists temporarily seized control of the Grand Mosque in Mecca in 1979.
  4. Fahd became king in 1982 – during his reign Saudi Arabia became the largest oil producer in the world. However, internal tensions increased when the country allied itself with the United States, and others, in the Gulf War of 1991. In the early 2000s, the Islamicist opposition to the regime carried out a series of terrorist attacks.
  5. Abdullah succeeded Fahd in 2005. He instituted a number of mild reforms to modernize many of the country’s institutions and, to some extent, increased political participation.
  6. Salman became king in 2015

Saudi Arabia history timeline

To get the Saudi Arabia history more simple, you can see the Saudi Arabia history timeline below:

saudi arabia history timeline - How Saudi Arabia became a country

We hope that the article above makes you understand How Saudi Arabia Became a Country. Although it is a Simple History of Saudi Arabia, at least you can understand the big picture of Saudi Arabia history. If you are interested of related article, you can subscribe this blog. Thanks for visiting.

See Also:

Jeddah Airport History
Jeddah Islamic Port History
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