Steel Structures Design Factors

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Steel Structures Design Factors

Steel Structures Design Factors

All the members in the structure should have adequate strength, stiffness and toughness to ensure proper funtioning during service life. Members should have adequate strength, stiffness and toughness to ensure propoer functioning during service life.

Reserved strength must be available to cater for:

  • Occasional overloads – underestimated loads.
  • Variability of strength of materials from those specified.
  • Variation in strength due to workmanship, construction practices.
  • Goal is to prevent limit state from being reached.

1. Adaptations to site:

If the structure is a building, for instance, the designer must create a plan that has suitable arrangement for rooms, corridors, stairways, windows, elevators, emergency exits etc and all this plan should be adapted to site so that it is feasible, accepted aesthetically and at a reasonable cost. This is called funtional planning.

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2. Structural scheme:

structural scheme is dependent on funtional planning. Structural scheme includes the location of columns in the buildings, it is to be worked out with the funtional plan and sufficent space must be anticipated between finished ceiling and finished floor for location of columns.

3. Structural analysis:

Once loads are defined and design is laid out, structural analysis must be performed to determine internal forces that will be produced in various members of the framework. Assumptions must be made and it should be ensured that structure in reality also behaves as it is supposed to (and as it was assumed to behave).

4. Proportionality of members:

Members must be proportioned with factor of safety in mind.

5. Factor of safety:

The development of design specifications to provide suitable values of the margin of safety, reliability and probability of failure must take into consideration the following factors.

  • Variability of the material with respect to strength and other physical properties.
  • Uncertainity in the expected loads.
  • Precision with which internal forces are calculated.
  • Possibility of corrosion.
  • Extent of damage, loss of life.
  • Operational importance.
  • Quality of workmanship.

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